Pain is a complex phenomenon which can difficult to manage. Identifying where the pain is arising from is essential if treatment is to be successful.
Referred pain is a term used to describe the phenomenon of pain perceived at a site adjacent to or at a site away from the site of injury’s origin. Sometimes pain felt in one area of the body does not accurately represent where the problem is, because the pain is referred from another area. A common example is the pain associated with a heart attack. While the injury is to the heart muscle, patients often experience pain in their jaw or arm.
1) severe headache pain arising from the cervical facet joint.
2) Shoulder and arm pain arising from muscle dysfunction treated with intramuscular stimulation (IMS).
3) Thoracic pain arising from thoracic facets and instability.
4) Pelvic pain arising from ligament instability of pubis symphysis treated with prolotherapy.
5) Buttock pain arising from SI joint treated with x-ray guided injections.