Ligaments connect bone to bone. The shoulder is composed of two principal joints: the acromio-clavicular (AC) joint and the glenohumeral joint.
The acromio-clavicular joint (AC) is compromised of three ligaments: cocrocoacromial, corococlavicular and acromioclavicular ligaments.
Four ligaments make up the joint capsule that connects the humerus(upper arm bone) to the glenoid: the superior, middle, inferior and posterior glenohumeral ligaments.
The function of these later ligaments is to keep the ball of the humerus in the shoulder socket. If there is a tear of one or more of the ligaments, the shoulder can slip in and out of its socket and hence becomes unstable. The anterior glenohumeral ligament is injured in most cases of shoulder dislocations.
Surgery is often recommended in patients with persistent pain and instability.
Please review MRI image and case report below which illustrates the successes patients are having utilitzing their own stem cells at Regenexx.