Lower back paincan arise from many sources including facets, sacroillac joints, ligamental instability, muscular dysfunction and the lumbar disc. Discectomy is a common surgical procedure for lower back pain where the disc bulge is surgically trimmed. In the short term this may be beneficial but in the long term it can result in progression of the degenerative process by compromising the integrity and blood supply of the disc.
The disc is composed of two principle components: the annular fibrous and nucleus pulpopus.
The annulus is a ring of strong ligamental fibers that encircle the inner core of the disc. The nucleus pulpopus is the inner core and is compromised of jelly like material. The annulus fibrous functions to prevent the nucleus pulposus from leaking out. It is best thought of as the sidewall of a tire. It is also the only part of the disc that has a significant blood supply.
A discectomycuts through the sidewall of the disc thereby weakening the fibers that contain the nucleus pulpopus and compromising the blood supply to the disc.